Saturday, March 14, 2020

An experiment to determine the enthalpy changes using Hesss law Essay Example

An experiment to determine the enthalpy changes using Hesss law Essay Example An experiment to determine the enthalpy changes using Hesss law Essay An experiment to determine the enthalpy changes using Hesss law Essay The main idea behind this experiment is to find out the temperature difference between the room temperature and the final temperature. Sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate and hydrochloric acid were used in this experiment. Sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash is got from the reaction of carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide while sodium hydrogencarbonate (baking soda) is a salt formed by the partial replacement of hydrogen by sodium.Data Collection1) Temperature change by using 3.3g of sodium hydrogencarbonateMass of the container on which the sample was weighed = 11.48gMass of the container and the crystals = 14.98gMass of the container after the crystals were added = 11.70gMass of the crystals that did not react = 00.20gMass of the crystals that reacted = 03.30gTime (s)Temperature ( à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ C)023.03023.06023.09018.012015.015015.018015.021015.024015.527016.030016.02) Temperature change by using 1.88g of sodium carbonateMass of the container on which the sample was weigh ed = 11.48gMass of the container and the crystals = 13.48gMass of the container after the crystals were added = 13.60gMass of the crystals that did not react = 00.12gMass of the crystals that reacted = 01.88gTime (s)Temperature ( à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ C)023.03023.06023.09029.012030.015030.018030.021030.024029.527029.030029.03) Temperature change by using 5.66g of sodium hydrogencarbonateMass of the container on which the sample was weighed = 11.48gMass of the container and the crystals = 18.48gMass of the container after the crystals were added = 12.82gMass of the crystals that did not react = 01.34gMass of the crystals that reacted = 05.66gTime (s)Temperature ( à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ C)023.03023.06023.09021.012021.015021.018021.021021.024022.527022.030022.04) Temperature change by using 3.85g of sodium carbonateMass of the container on which the sample was weighed = 11.48gMass of the container and the crystals = 15.48gMass of the container after the crystals were added = 11.63gMass of the crystals th at did not react = 00.15gMass of the crystals that reacted = 03.85gTime (s)Temperature ( à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ C)023.03023.06023.09028.512028.515028.518028.521028.524028.027028.030028.0UNCERTAINITIES+/- 0.01g : Digital weighing scale+/- 0.01s : Stop watch+/- 0.05cm3 : Measuring cylinder+/- 0.05à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C : ThermometerOBSERVATIONS- When hydrochloric acid is added to sodium carbonate, some effervescence (bubbles appear) is observed because of the liberation of carbon dioxide gas. It is completely soluble and in the process it starts getting warmer.- The same thing happens when sodium hydrogencarbonate is added to hydrochloric acid except for the fact it cools down instead of getting warmer.CHEMICALS (QUALITATIVE DATA)1) Hydrochloric acid- It is colorless and odorless. It is a monoprotic acid, that is, it produces 1 hydrogen ion when completely dissolved in water. The molarity of hydrochloric acid used in this experiment is 2M.2) Sodium carbonate- Sodium Carbonate is a white, crystalline com pound soluble in water (absorbing moisture from the air) but insoluble in alcohol. It forms a strongly alkaline water solution. It is also known as soda ash3) Sodium hydrogencarbonate- sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, chemical compound, NaHCO3, a white crystalline or granular powder, commonly known as bicarbonate of soda or baking soda. It is soluble in water and very slightly soluble in alcohol.DATA PROCESSING AND PRESENTATIONFinding the enthalpy of reaction for the following equation:2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O +CO2a) Using 1.88g of sodium carbonate and 3.3g of sodium hydrogencarbonateEnthalpy cycle for the reaction?H12NaHCO3(s) + 2 HCl 2NaCl(aq) +2 CO2(g)+ 2 H2O(l)?H2 ?H3Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O + 2 HCL(aq)Heat released during the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 (Q1)= Mc?TSo, Q1 = 25g * 4.18 * (15-23)Q1 = 25* 4.18 * -8Therefore, Q1 = -836 J= -0.836KJCalculating the number of moles present in 3.3g of NaHCO3Number of moles = mass(g)/ molar massMass (g) = 3.3gMolar mass = 2 3 + 1 + 12 +(16*3)= 23 + 1 + 12 + 48= 84 g/molnumber of moles present in 3.3g of NaHCO3 = 3.3g/ (84g/mol)= 0.039 molesCalculating the amount of energy given out by 1 moleIf 0.039 moles of NaHCO3 give -0.836KJ of energy then1 mole would give out (-0.836/0.039 = -21.44KJ) of energyTherefore, ?H1 = -21.44 KJ/molCalculating ?H3 by the above method, that is, the reaction between Na2CO3 and HClQ2 = Mc?TSo, Q2 = 25 * 4.18 * (30-23)Q2 = 25 * 4.18 * 7Therefore, Q2 = 731.5J= 0.7315KJCalculating the number of moles present in 1.8g of Na2CO3Number of moles = mass (g)/ molar massMass (g) = 1.8gMolar mass = (23 * 2) + 12 +(16*3)= 46 +12 + 48= 106 g/molnumber of moles present in 1.8g of Na2CO3 = 1.8g/ (106g/mol)= 0.018 molesCalculating the amount of energy given out by 1 moleIf 0.018 moles of Na2CO3 give -0.731KJ of energy then1 mole would give out (-0.7315/0.018 = 40.64KJ) of energyTherefore, ?H3 = 40.64 KJ/molIn order to find the enthalpy of reaction for:2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O+ CO2; we use the Hes ss law which states that 2 ?H1 = ?H2 + ?H3?H2 = 2 ?H1 ?H3so, 2 ?H1 = 2 * -21.44 KJ/mol= -42.88KJ/mol?H3 = 40.64 KJ/molTherefore, ?H2 = -42.88 40.64= -83.52KJ/molb) Calculating the enthalpy change of reaction using 5.66g of sodium hydrogencarbonate, 3.85g of sodium carbonate and 50cmà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ of HCl.Enthalpy cycle for the reaction?H12NaHCO3(s) + 2 HCl 2NaCl(aq) +2 CO2(g)+ 2 H2O(l)?H2 ?H3Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O + 2 HCL(aq)Heat released during the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 (Q1)= Mc?TSo, Q1 = 50g * 4.18 * (21.5-23.0)Q1 = 50* 4.18 * 1.5Therefore, Q1 = -331.50 J= -0.3135KJ `Calculating the number of moles present in 5.66g of NaHCO3Number of moles = mass (g)/ molar massMass (g) = 5.66gMolar mass = 23 + 1 + 12 + (16*3)= 23 + 1 + 12 + 48= 84 g/molnumber of moles present in 5.66g of NaHCO3 = 5.66g/ (84g/mol)= 0.0674 molesCalculating the amount of energy given out by 1 moleIf 0.0674 moles of Na2CO3 give -0.3135KJ of energy then1 mole would give out (-0.3135/0.0674 = -4.65KJ) of en ergyTherefore, ?H1 = -4.65 KJ/molCalculating ?H3 by the above method, that is, the reaction between Na2CO3 and HClQ2 = Mc?TSo, Q2 = 50 * 4.18 * (28.5-23)Q2 = 50 * 4.18 * 5.5Therefore, Q2 = 1149.5J= 1.1495KJCalculating the number of moles present in 3.85g of Na2CO3Number of moles = mass (g)/ molar massMass (g) = 3.85gMolar mass = (23 * 2) + 12 + (16*3)= 46 +12 + 48= 106 g/molnumber of moles present in 1.8g of Na2CO3 = 3.85g/ (106g/mol)= 0.036 molesCalculating the amount of energy given out by 1 moleIf 0.036 moles of Na2CO3 give 1.1495KJ of energy then1 mole would give out (1.1495KJ/0.036 = 31.93KJ) of energyTherefore, ?H3 = 31.93KJ/molIn order to find the enthalpy of reaction for:2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O+ CO2; we use the Hesss law which states that 2 ?H1 = ?H2 + ?H3?H2 = 2 ?H1 ?H3so, 2 ?H1 = 2 * -4.65 KJ/mol= -9.3KJ/mol?H3 = 31.93KJ/molTherefore, ?H2 = -9.3KJ/mol 31.93KJ/mol= -41.23KJ/molc) Error analysisDigital weighing scale: 1) 0.01/3.3 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.3%2) 0.01/5.66 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.18%Stop watch : 0.01/300 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 3.3*10^-3Measuring cylinder : 1) 0.05/25 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.2%2) 0.05/50 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.1%Thermometer : 0.05/23 * 100= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.22%Total percentage error = 0.22%+ 0.1% + 3.3*10^-3 + 0.18%+ 0.3%= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½0.8033%Accounting for the error ?H2 = à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ -41.23KJ/mol= à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ -83.52KJ/molConclusionThe reaction between sodium hydrogencarbonate and HCl is endothermic, that is, heat is being absorbed in the reaction and the reaction between sodium carbonate and HCl is exothermic because temperature is given out to the surroundings.Also, in the second part of the experiment when the volume of HCl is increased and also the masses of sodium hydrogencarbonate andsodium carbonate is increased, the temperature difference in the reaction is less than before when the mass were less. The enthalpy of reaction is also decreased in the second part.Evaluation:Reasons for shortcoming in the answers are as follows:1) While t ransferring the HCl from the measuring cylinder to beaker, there is a possibility of leaving out some amount of HCl in the beaker itself.2) An analogue thermometer was used so the temperature may not have been accurate.3) Some systematic errors in the equipment might have led to some slight changes in the readings.Solution to the above problems:1) The first problem stated above is a personal error; So it can only be overcome by practice and improving ones concentration while doing the experiment.2) The second problem could have been overcome by the use of digital thermometer which is more accurate than an analogue thermometer.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Business Submission Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Business Submission - Assignment Example In compliance with Principle 1, our organization has several initiatives in place such as a response process to deal with any employee who may have any grievances pertaining to the violation of their human rights. In addition, we view employees as important assets and hence free communication is fully supported by the management giving the employees an opportunity to air any views that they may have. Principle 8 PracticesEver since our invention, we have been operating under the notion of prevailing in concert with the environment rather than be at odds with it. As compared to other data centers globally, our data centers save up to 50% on energy which is a rather big achievement given how very few companies consider this.We encourage employees to take part in environmental responsiveness via implementing practices that target waste reduction, recycling, and reusing. For instance, we host farmers’ markets and sustainable cooking seminars as a way of setting an example to the e mployees on â€Å"going green†. Currently, our facilities are powered by renewable energy. We have taken the initiative to invest in renewable energy projects that help us take part in minimizing the impact of carbon dioxide on the rest of the world.Given that we are highly involved in practices that comply with principles 1 and 8 of the Un Global Compact principles, we believe that are capable of endorsing recommendations that will guide other businesses in compliance with these Global Compact Principles.

Monday, February 10, 2020

Anything But Lazy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Anything But Lazy - Essay Example In order to examine the effects of these factors, the author undertook a study which examined how middle school students undertake the "reading task demands of his or her classroom" and how each teacher contributed to the students' reading task / challenge. Using a descriptive case study approach, the author conducted periodic visits, administered questionnaires and conducted comprehension assessments in order to gather primary data. Identifying themes and patterns from an analysis of this data, the author identified "the ways in which each student transacted in the classroom and how the teachers worked with / responded to students around issues of reading and comprehension". The study revealed that as far as students were concerned, their reading / comprehension was influenced by own ability, desire to learn, and more importantly, how the student wanted to be perceived [by his or her peers] as a reader.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

The Spread Of Islam Across The Globe Essay Example for Free

The Spread Of Islam Across The Globe Essay Inadvertently, there is no doubt that Islam is one of the widely spread religion in the world, with followers spanning across the globe. There are more Christians converting to Islam than there are Muslims converting to Christianity. The pattern and the rapidity with which Islam spread over time has been a point of interest to most scholars with all manner of theories being in the fore to explain this phenomenon. Looking at how Islam is mapped out indicates that in addition to other factors, environmental determinism and communication played a major role. The spread of Islam can be traced back to the death of Prophet Muhammad. His death prompted the rise of the Arab empire and later the creation of Muslim dynasties spanning over the Middle East, North and West Africa. Indeed a study of the initial spread of Islam is compounded by the lack of proper objective documentation and also the divergent theories being fronted by scholars. However, many recognize that the spread of this religion took place in phases. The first phase was during the fist century of Islam as spread by Muhammad. This was an era characterized by Muslim conquests of the existing empires which were reoriented towards Islam. History has it that the initial spread of Muslim ideals was not emphasized on conversion but rather on subordination of the polytheistic societies; â€Å"at the outset, they were hostile to conversions because new Muslims diluted the economic status advantages of the Arabs. † (Ira, 2002, 200) However, Islam became instantly popular as it was offering a new societal order; it was providing an alternative to the existing political and religious identity. The formation of the Arab empire in addition made Islam an attractive venture to the â€Å"elements of the former Byzantine and Sasanian aristocracies, including soldiers, officials, landlords, and others† (Ira, 2002, 200). With time though, the notion that Islam was an exclusive Arab affair would be diminished by the formation of a religious doctrine, this opened the doors to mass conversions. Mosques and schools were built popularizing the religion and building a competitive front to the Christians and the Jews. The second phase was characterized by the formation of Islamic disciplines, establishing a body of Islamic philosophy and law. It is this era that would witness the spread of Islam to Africa and also in central Asia. From here, Islam would spread gradually to the rest of the world. Theories abound over the rapid spread of Islam across the globe. The most prominent theory and which has been largely discredited forceful conversion. This theory was informed by the early days of the spread of Islam which were characterized by Mohammed forming an army of Muslims to conquer medina. It is also formed by images and stories of an Arab horseman wielding a sword and a Quran. Indeed, the conquest of North Africa was a result of militarization. Due to its proximity to the Middle East, North Africa had been mapped out as a possible territory where Islam could be spread barely a few decades after the death pf Mohammad. Before its conquest, North Africa was largely under the Christian Byzantines. The Arabs made their inroads by establishing military bases in Tunisia (then referred to as Qayrawan). Islam from here was spread to the native Berbers. The conversion of the Berbers meant that the Arab forces were strengthened and used to conquer Spain as well as some parts of France. The existing institutions of the Byzantine Empire were removed after the conquest of the Constantinople. From here, the Arab forces progressed to Iran and Asia conquering the existing empires and although they did not establish permanent residents, they instated societal changes that were conducive to the survival of Islam. It is important to observe that these early campaigns were carried out by the Umayyads, under Umar, the second caliph having taken over from Abu Bakr who was the immediate successor of Mohammad. The Umayyads are seen as having played a major role in the early expansion of Islam through what is referred to as jihad. Their main aim was to conquer, plunder and establish as system of taxation that would benefit the Arabs. It is these incidences that have continued to fuel criticism against Muslims especially by western scholars who maintain that the spread of Islam has been as a result of violence (Frances, 2009, 37). It is important to point out that the theory of forced conversion has largely been discredited. This is not to mean that history is not rife with other incidences of forced conversions. Christianity and Islam are two religions that have been recognized as at one moment in their history propagated the use of violence to spread and defend the faith, this has remained a controversy and also a contradiction as the two religions are deeply anchored in the ideals of peace and condemnation of violence. The spread of Islam in Bengal has aroused much interest with most leaning towards forced conversion as the reason behind it. The spread of Islam across north and West Africa is also seen as having been fuelled by violence meted out against the locals in the bid to establish a new political order. Razia (1992, 2) has critically examined this observing that â€Å"the ‘sword theory† can only be a partial explanation of an extremely complex process that has resulted in the spread of Islam. † The initial process of the spread of Islam lay on the â€Å"breakdown of the social and religious structures of non-Muslim communities in the tenth to the twelfth centuries. † (Ira, 2002, 200). This was created animosity and hostility between the Muslims and the non Muslims, leading to the destruction of the existing social and communal organizations. The resultant collapse of order in the society would see Muslims leaders initiate reconstruction schemes that would see the rise of a new societal beliefs and identities. Major aspects of the spread of Islam are environmental determinism and communication. Environmental determinism is a theory propagating the idea that culture is determined by the physical conditions and not by social conditions as had priory been believed. This was a conclusion that was reached by a cross examination of different cultures, the behaviors and attitudes of those people in relation to physical factors such as climate and topography. It is a similar line of thinking that has been used to analyze the spread of Islam globally, as Holt et al (1977, 443) observes; â€Å"there is a closer relationship between Islam and its geographical setting, than that of any other of the great monotheistic religions. † A critical analysis of the spread and expansion of Islam reveals one succinct feature; it has largely been laid out in the arid zones and along the major sea routes. As scholars have observed, the rapid spread of Islam can be seen to have occurred along trade routes. The spread of Islam to major parts of Africa has been closely looked into. Due to its geographic proximity to the Middle East, a few decades after the death of Muhammad, Islam had been expanded to the northern Africa; this would be followed by a push into Spain resulting to Islam spreading across three continents globally. This fast spread has been credited to trade and geographic positioning more than to anything else. The initial spread of Islam was done through military conquest but the later expansion was done through frontiers. A look at the medieval era indicates that the major sea and land routes were in the preserve of the Muslim merchants. There is evidence that Islam was spread along those routes, as Michael has concurred, â€Å"at the time, the leading edges of this expansion were rapidly moving southward along both the east and west coasts of Africa, northeastward into central Asia, and southeastward through India into the Indonesian archipelago. † (2004, 24) North African traders are credited for having spread Islam to West Africa and later to the south of Sahara. The spread of Islam to Africa took place in three phases. The first phase saw the growth of Muslim communities that lived along the trade routes. Then, there was a clear correlation between Islam and distance trade. There were clear incentives given to the merchants that enabled them to carry out trade better than the non Muslims. The 12th century saw increased spread of Islam in Africa due to the increased contacts between the two. Merchant scholars were fast becoming advisors in some of the African kingdoms and integration between Africans and the Muslims was taken to a higher level. In the second phase, Islam would cease to be confined in the shores of the Indian oceans and along trade routes into the interior. The early interactions of the Muslim scholars with the some of the African kings led to a fast spread of Islam. There is evidence of a number of empires that fully embraced Islam and lorded over their subjects. The Mali Empire is a distinct example of this. Initially, Islam, for it to be acceptable to the natives had to be blended with the local traditions. The third phase of the spread of Islam in Africa was through a holy war, a jihad initiated by the Muslims to conquer the waning influence of the pagans. This led to the growth of communities that fully embraced Islam. The nineteenth century in West Africa was characterized with jihads; this was an era that would see the emergence of strong African Muslim leaders such as Samouri Toure. By the time colonialism was being instituted, Islam had already gained roots that not even the anti slavery campaigns could reduce the growing influence. One factor still remains in Africa; Islam remains the main religion in areas that acted as the major trade routes, which coincidentally were along the ocean shores. In Africa, as well as in the Middle East, areas dominated by Islam are seen as containing similar geographic and climatic features. Communication is also a major factor that fuelled the rapid spread of Islam. This is in terms of the use of Arab as the main language of Islam thus enhancing interaction and integration of the various converted groups. A look at the history of Arabic reveals that before the onset of Islam, it was regarded as a minor group of the Semitic language. Currently, Arabic is the holy language through which Islamic message was delivered. The use of Arabic has led to the fast spread of Islam as it has seen the converted being inculcated into the ways and culture of the Arabs. The power of communication can also be seen in the way that the initial Muslim frontiers carried the message across. Unlike the Christians who formed associations and movements to propagate their Christian beliefs, Islam relied on â€Å"informal processes such as the formation of business partnerships and political affiliations, as well as through intermarriage. † (Michael, 2004, 24) This meant that the Muslim frontiers formed tighter ties with the locals enhancing the further spread of Islam. The power of the message passed across was also a major factor in the rapid spread of Islam. Before the coming of Islam, majority of the societies had loosely organized political systems with individuals being locked in their own tribal cocoons with no prospects of interaction with the outside world. Islam however sought to establish a new order; the growth of successful states in the Middle East was being used as a good enough reason to advocate for the spread of Islam civilization. Islam hence was being seen holding the key to civilization and was soon being identified with leaders and the elites in the society. As Ira has mentioned, â€Å"Islam became the religion of tribal peoples and merchant group seeking economic integration, and state elites seeking consolidated political power. † (2002, 205) Islam presented new ideals, a shift from the past and would see the quest for the formation of new states and the shift from animistic and polytheistic traditional religions to modernity which became characterized by modernism. Islam was seen as bringing in a new social identity. Indeed, the rapid spread of Islam is a major a topic drawing various views from scholars and pundits. The traditional held view that it was through violence and coercion that the faith has been able to expand globally has been long disputed. Though there is evidence especially in the medieval era when the holy war was used as an instrument of conquest, there is more to this as Christianity also used crusaders in its expansionary mission. Environmental determinism and communication are seen as major factors. A look at the spread of Islam indicates a certain pattern, though it is globally spread, it is mainly concentrated in middle east, some parts of Europe, central Asia, northern and western Africa. These are areas that border the Middle East and are situated along the major trade routes. The geographical factor of the spread of Islam has remained a key interest. The use of a common language and the propagation of Arabic as the holy language through which the holy message was delivered is also a major factor as it has eased communication and integration of Muslims worldwide. References Razia A. B. (1992) Islam in Bangladesh. BRILL. Michael F. (2004) Islam in world cultures: comparative perspectives. ABC-CLIO, Timothy I. (2003) The archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge University Press, Holt P. M et al. (1977) The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press, Ira M. L. (2002) A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press, Frances O. (2009) History of Islam. The Rosen Publishing Group,

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

MIC conviction :: Essays Papers

MIC conviction Introduction Three aviation students with similar cases involving Minor in Consumption charges will be discussed. The three students are Mr. Jack Daniels, Mr. Johnnie Walker, and Ms. Brandy Wine. We will look at each student separately and answer questions pertaining to each of their situations. Some of the questions include whether or not the students need to comply with the reporting requirement of 14 CFR  § 61.15. What, if any, reports do they have to make on their next medical? We will also discuss Ms. Wine’s situation, whether or not the police stop violated the Fourth Amendment. Mr. Jack Daniels Mr. Daniels was cited for Minor in Consumption of Alcohol, pled guilty, and was sentenced to pay a $100 fine. Mr. Daniels wants to know what he needs to do to comply with the FAA so that he can remain a pilot. According to 14 CFR  §61.15(e), â€Å"Each person holding a certificate issued under this part shall provide a written report of each motor vehicle action to the FAA . . . no later than 60 days after the motor vehicle action.† To determine whether Mr. Daniels must comply with this regulation, a â€Å"motor vehicle action† must be defined. As per 14 CFR  §61.15(c), a motor vehicle action means: (1) A conviction after November 29, 1990, for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to the operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under the influence of alcohol or a drug; (2) The cancellation, suspension, or revocation of a license to operate a motor vehicle after November 29, 1990, for a cause related to the operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under the influence of alcohol or a drug; (3) The denial after November 29, 1990, of an application for a license to operate a motor vehicle for a cause related to the operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated b alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under the influence of alcohol or a drug. Mr. Daniels was not involved with a motor vehicle; therefore, he does not fall under any of these definitions of a motor vehicle action. This means that Mr. Daniels will not have to report to the FAA.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Library System Essay

Library System is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. Prior to computerization, library tasks were performed manually and independently from one another. Selectors ordered materials with ordering slips, cataloguers manually catalogued items and indexed them with the card catalog system, fines were collected by local bailiffs, and users signed books out manually, indicating their name on cue cards which were then kept at the circulation desk. Early mechanization came in 1936, when the University of Texas began using a punch card system to manage library circulation. While the punch card system allowed for more efficient tracking of loans, library services were far from being integrated, and no other library task was affected by this change. Following this, the next big innovation came with the advent of MARC standards in the 1960s which coincided with the growth of computer technologies – library automation was born. Now, in our society all over the world technology is the most important advancement, a necessity in bringing about progress as we move along in this computerized world. These changes in effect make man’s life easier and more convenient. The relationship between the library and computer is constantly changing that the use of computer contributes to the way man learns and communicates. It easy in this world to strive for changes and since library is no different from any firm and institution, considering the use of computer to perform a given task will be efficient. Librarians have the responsibility not only to know about the ways in which libraries will be managed using techniques of computerized, but also to be aware of the changes that computerized can bring to the library services in the ne ar future.(Grace, 2011) And as of today our Library System in PUP-Ragay is still operated manually. Manual operating systems are vulnerable to human error. For instance, a librarian who misfiles a borrower’s records or indexes a book incorrectly slows down the process and wastes employees’ time, it’s also slow to operate. Instead of using a computer to issue and take back books, locating and updating a card index is slow and laborious. Manual systems are unable to store large amounts of data efficiently. With manual systems staffs spend a lot of their time on mechanical, clerical  tasks rather than liaising with library visitors. Manual systems in libraries struggle to cope with the recent explosion in information requests, many of them about online resources. Manual systems find it hard to cope with the volume of borrowers’ inquiries about books and research information. On a simple level, locating a precise book within the local library system is time-consuming without a link ed computer network. On another level, meeting an inquiry about a precise online resource becomes almost impossible. According to Robson (2001), usability is a key requirement for users, says Elisabeth Robson, Product manager for Online Computer Library Center. The catalogue has become a way to pull together disparate resources, including commercial resources and web links. management systems also allow circulation, including check in/check out and enable libraries to purchase materials and track where they are. In the 1980s, to relieve overcrowding in existing on-campus library buildings, the UC system constructed two regional library facilities: the Northern Regional Library Facility at UC Berkeley’s Richmond Field Station (opened 1982), and the Southern Regional Library Facility on the western edge of the UCLA campus (opened 1987). As of 2007, Northern Regional Library Facility is home to 4.7 million volumes, while SRLF is home to 5.7 million. Each facility receives items from all UC campuses in its respective region of the state, and has climate controls and high-density stacks. Items are shelved two deep and are arranged in a sequence that results in efficient use of space (but is not quite as intuitive as traditional library indexing systems). As a result, casual browsing is prohibited, and the shelves are accessible only by library clerks trained to retrieve and put back items properly. Users must page materials to an on-site reading room or to a library at their home campus. Today, Information Technology (IT) has changed the world massively. (examples include reading our emails and news online using neither paper nor pen, communicating with instant messengers and Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) while not sending letters or going to call centers, watching video or TV shows online without renting / buying of physical DVDs, ordering and purchasing products online from around the world without traveling, and as one of the more recent developments, some minor surgical procedures can be performed without the presence of doctors). And even all the businesses are shifting to computer based system. All of this motivated us to play our  own part in supporting the PUP-Ragay Library in our effort to improve efficiency and quality of the services and reduce the sort of problems and difficulties which accompany the old system. This project is concerned with developing a System using Advance Programming. This System will provide a computer based library system with higher speed, accuracy and efficiency. It should be mentioned that such a system would be replicable and could be easily implemented in other school libraries and public libraries, once it has been successfully installed in PUP-Ragay. Statement of the Problem The problems with the current library system of PUP-Ragay Library are the following: The current system is too complicated as said by the user.  The current system is too slow for processes Scope and Limitation of the Study Scope: The scope of this project is to make a library system that will meet the general and specific objectives and are the following: (a) The proposed system will be used in borrowing, returning and recording of books of PUP-Ragay Library. (b) The proposed system will be having a single application that includes circulation, cataloging and inventory. (c) The proposed system can print the books recorded in the inventory. (d) The proposed system will be having a single username and password. (e) The proposed system may also be used to manage the inventory of PUP-Ragay Library. (f) The proposed system will be displaying a record of past and present borrowers that may be used for future references. (g) The proposed system can create multiple user accounts. (h) The proposed system will be using Visual Basic 6 programming language in making the proposal system. Limitation: The proposed system will be limited to the following: (a) The proposed system will not be using barcode scanner. (b) The proposed system will not be displaying any late returned books with  penalties but will still display a message that the book was returned. (c) The proposed system will not be generating accession number for the books. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Theoretically, the main purpose of the proposed system is to create an efficient fast and reliable Library System of PUP-Ragay Campus. Conceptual framework paradigm will present to you like input, process and output of the system that will show the great difference between existing system to the proposed system.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Late 19th Century The Gilded Age - 1295 Words

The late 19th century of American history is most commonly known as the Gilded Age, because of its attractive appearance, but underlying corruption. Popular themes during this period were greed and guile. This can most clearly be seen in the nature of city governments and political machine systems. Political machine systems were made up influential men preying on the vulnerable for their own gain. A shining example of this unethical system is Tammany Hall. Tammany Hall was a political force in New York City from its 1789 inception as a benevolent association to its infamous end in the early 20th century (Tammany Hall). Run by William M. Tweed, commonly referred to as Boss Tweed, this political ring gained its popularity by supporting immigrants and the lower class. Tammany Hall pushed for real improvements in hospitals, schools, and infrastructure (Burns). Although these examples are viewed as a good within the system, they are irrelevant and ineffective in the overall upheaval cause d by Boss Tweed and his political machine. Tweed s idea of city government and his political machine was a failure because it took advantage of taxpayers, used political graft and corruption to disparage the Constitution, and set a bad example for future political leaders. Tammany Hall took money from taxpayers to maintain their political machine and increase their personal fortune. This is a clear example of failure within what seemed to be a fair political system. Boss Tweed used a graftShow MoreRelatedEssay on American History: The Gilded Age America736 Words   |  3 PagesGilded Age America Throughout the history of the United States, the Gilded Age is regarded as a period that spanned the last three decades of the 19th century. This period starts from the Civil War came to an end in the 1865 up to 1900. The term Gilded Age was formulated by writers Charles Warner and Mark Twain in The Gilded Age: A Tale of Toady in 1873. They did this since they believed it to be an era that would be characterized by a variety of severe social problems that were camouflaged byRead MoreTransformation Of Urban Life During The Gilded Age And The Development Of Suburbs1423 Words   |  6 PagesTopic 3: The Transformation of Urban Life in the Gilded Age and the Development of Suburbs for the American Middle Classes This historical study will define the increased economy prosperity of the Gilded Age and the development of suburban planning in the American middle classes. During the late 19th century, the massive growth of the American economy was dominantly formed in urban industrial centers, yet the wealth generated from the upper and middle classes allowed them to move out into ruralRead MoreThe Gilded Age : A Powerhouse Rose From The Ashes Of The Civil War871 Words   |  4 PagesProgressives in the Gilded Age The Gilded Age: A powerhouse rose from the ashes of the Civil War. From the Civil War until about 1896, the Gilded Age was born. The United States was going through an era of governmental, fiscal and societal restructuring. Gilded Age got its name because Mark Twain seen as a period where everything seemed to be well on the surface but beneath was a scheme of political dishonesty and self-indulgence. Around this time, the affluent upper class was created due to theRead MoreA Window into Thinking During The Gilded Age in the Book Looking Backwards by Edward Bellamy1218 Words   |  5 PagesIn the latter chapters, Julian gains a love interest. He falls in love with Edith Leete, the daughter, who turns out to be Edith Bartlets great-granddaughter. Edith Bartlet was his former fiancà ¨e. In the 19th century, anarchism was a growing movement that scared many people including Julian. Dr. Leete describes how it was in fact the wealthiest who funded them, so people would be afraid of reform. However, this was not enough because social change was not instigated by labor or political partiesRead MoreGilded Age Essay872 Words   |  4 Pagestroubles, we shouldnt test people for drugs, we should test them for stupidity, ignorance, greed and love of power.† When Mark Twain and Charles Dudley coined the phrase ‘gilded age’ to describe what they saw in the late 19th century I’m sure they would agree wholeheartedly with Mr. O’Rourke. What does it mean ‘gilded age’? Gilded means to coat with a thin layer of gold, which I’m sure almost always is covering an inferior product. When one thinks of America one of the first thoughts that pop intoRead MoreThe First Midterm Assignment During American History1500 Words   |  6 P agesThe late-19th century was the most prolonged time period in American history and also what the bloodiest. Many violent events occurred that gave the 19th century its name, such as, profound labor conflicts between boss and workers, the Indian wars that was an extended battle for peace and a benefit in their lifestyles, the Jim Crow law which was established to separate races throughout the city, and also the fight for the American Empires power. These were the major issues that made the 19th centuryRead MoreJohn D. Rockefeller : The Gilded Age Of The Gilded Age741 Words   |  3 PagesFollowing years of reconstruction, the U.S. entered a new age. For this new age, Mark Twain named it after the â€Å"glittering† surface of the time that covered vast corruption underneath. The late 19th century would be called the Gilded Age (Houston). From this Gilded Age, a powerful businessman emerged. John D. Rockefeller ruled the oil industry as king. Using his incredible knowledge of business, he rose up through the age to become one of the most influential businessmen in history. Amidst the 1880sRead MoreWomen During The Civil War997 Words   |  4 Pageswhat they had to do, one must have knowledge of both the Gilded Age and the Progressive Era. The Gilded Age It is said that Mark Twain dubbed the later years of the 19th century as the Gilded Age. The period is very well described as a glittering invitation of the ‘American Dream’ to immigrants and laborers on the surface but corrupt and cutthroat underneath its illusionary surface. In many peoples’ eyes, the late 19th century was an age of selfishness and the lawless trickery of insatiable ‘RobberRead MoreThe Gilded Age : The Gilded Age1340 Words   |  6 PagesMark Twain, an American writer, named the late 19th century, the ‘Gilded Age.’ This time frame is ‘gilded’ because the time was glittering with gold on the surface, but corrupt and rotten underneath. This was a time period full of greed and guile, filled with robber barons, speculators, and Buccaneers. Not only that, but there were many sneaky business schemes to get more income, improper politics, and many impolite displays. Although, it’s better to think of this time as modern America’s formativeRead MoreProgression Of Women s Rights1229 Words   |  5 PagesProgression of Women’s Rights The Gilded Age caused the solution of many problems to not happen. During this time, in the late 19th century, there was extreme corruption that was not being fixed. Soon, in 1890, the rise of progressivism took place, trying to fix the problems that were made. Many different progressive era reformers focused on many different issues and tried to mend the corruption relating to that specific topic. Women’s rights was a huge problem during this time, and two specific